Woolly aphid eriosoma lanigerum hausmann apple best. Use of predators for the biological control of eriosoma lanigerum. Eriosoma lanigerum erislacategorization eppo global database. The reproductive potential of sexuparae is much lower as compared to that of virginoparae. Evidence of sexual reproduction of woolly apple aphid. Pdf towards improved control of woolly apple aphid eriosoma. Genetically diverse apple plantings have been established in new zealand with one aim to identify new sources of resistance to this pest, and also. Consequently, root colonies are a major source of aerial reinfestation in the following spring. Infested shoots loss of vigour and death of young tree or branches. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the creative commons cc0 license. Control of woolly aphid, eriosoma lanigerum hausmann.
Opie detailed picture of a colony on apple it is possible to see the filamentous wax produced by the aphids. In new zealand, it is considered a serious pest, causing reduced tree growth and contamination of fruit. The causal organism enters through wounds or injuries from the woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum. Woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum hausmann ecology. The negative impacts of pesticides on environment and human life make biological control an important model in the control of the wooly apple aphid. It is prevalent in regions where summers are hot and dry, and winters are severe. Aphid colonies on the trunk, branches or twigs can cause deformations, blisters, splitting and cancerlike swellings of the bark blackman and eastop, 1984. The effect of combining epns, epf and chemical control integrated management conclusions. It is a native of north america, where the american elm ulmus americana linnaeus urticales.
Eriosoma lanigerum, woolly apple aphid waa, is an important pest of. Woolly apple aphid waa, eriosoma lanigerum, is an important pest of apples, occurring throughout the applegrowing regions of the world. Life history of sexuparae and sexual morphs of woolly apple. Eriosoma lanigerum synonyms, eriosoma lanigerum pronunciation, eriosoma lanigerum translation, english dictionary definition of eriosoma lanigerum. Ein effektiver, aber komplizierterer weg, um pdfs zusammenzufugen. We also characterized the natural enemies present in the aphid colonies. Wooly aphid life stages right and infestation on apple, causing galls on stem left. Media in category eriosoma lanigerum the following 21 files are in this category, out of 21 total.
Eriosoma lanigerum erislacategorization eppo global. The present study assesses the effects of pyracantha coccinea rosaceae firethorn adjacent to apple orchards as this extraorchard habitat would positively. In addition, the potential implementation of new alternative biological control methods is discussed. Apple rootstock breeding and selection protocols objective 1. With the development of the woolly aphids on the apple trees, it groups into colonies presenting a white waxy filamentous covering.
Eriosoma lanigerum hausmann acta colony on trunk of apple on the scar tissue formed after cutting of a twig eriosoma lanigerum hausmann coutin r. Woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum hausmann ecology and. Earwig forficula auricularia predation on the woolly. The woolly mass will often be seen on the spurs or branches that have been pruned as well as within cracks in the bark. Eriosoma woolly aphids genus eriosoma arthropod genus a genus of arthropods aphididae, family aphididae small softbodied plant lice american. Eriosoma lanigerum hausmann pulgon lanigero del manzano. Eriosoma lanigerum, the woolly apple aphid, woolly aphid or american blight, is an aphid in the. Woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum abstract organic farming can improve soil quality and provide e. Aphididae, which is an important apple orchards pest throughout the world. Eriosoma lanigerum is an exotic species in the middle east. Compounds in aphid saliva that are toxic to trees are partly responsible for the severity. There is an increasing requirement to breed durable resistances to woolly apple aphid waa into apple cultivars.
Potential effects of climate change on biological control. Eriosoma lanigerum primarily a bark feeder on aerial parts and roots of apple and other trees american blight, woolly apple aphid eriosoma, genus. In insecticide trials in southern rhodesia against the woolly apple aphid, eriosoma lanigerum hsm. Although organic and conventional farming are often viewed as dichotomous, they may overlap in pest management and soil quality goals and outcomes. Pdf optimal profit of the parasitation by aphelinus mali in an ipm. Eriosoma synonyms, eriosoma pronunciation, eriosoma translation, english dictionary definition of eriosoma. Aphid wooly eriosoma lanigerum on box buxus miw251087 photosho. Agegrading nymphal instars of apterous virginoparae of eriosoma lanigerum hausmann hemiptera. Woolly aphid is a sporadic pest of apple, which is sometimes present at low levels in orchards but only increases to cause problems in some years. The woolly apple aphid waa, eriosoma lanigerum hausmann, is an important pest of apple orchards worldwide, causing direct damage through feeding by the highly specialized piercingsucking mouthparts. Apple, malus domestica, is a deciduous tree in the family rosaceae which is grown for its fruits, known as apples. Concepts of apple rootstock breeding and selection.
Enter the name or part of a name you wish to search for. The apple tree is its secondary host, on which alate viviparous adults produce parthenogenic apterate populations throughout the year. An eriosoma lanigerum in nahilalakip ha genus nga eriosoma, ngan familia nga aphididae. Homoptera this pest was introduced in india during the 18th century with imported apple rootstock from china. Viburnum species are attacked by the snowball aphid anuraphis viburnicola. In new zealand, it is considered a serious pest, causing reduced tree growth and. In chile between 1903 and 1984, 66 species of beneficial insects were introduced against several pest species of such crops. Woolly apple aphid, eriosoma lanigerum hausmann, in south. Like the rest of south america in the early 1900s, chile imported aphelinus mali against eriosoma lanigerum and r. Seasonal biology and reproductive behaviour of woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum hausmann. Aug 21, 2012 biological control systems are integral to new zealands success as a nation reliant on exporting quality agricultural, forestry and horticultural products. For more multimedia, look at eriosoma on wikimedia commons.
Distance analysis was done using neighbour joining and the strength was calculated using a. Definition of eriosoma lanigerum in the dictionary. This aphid congregates at the end of the branches causing. Ulmaceae is the primary host and apple the secondary one. Mouthpart structure in the woolly apple aphid eriosoma. Woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum hausmann ecology and its. Pdf woolly apple aphid, eriosoma lanigerum hausmann, in. Woolly aphids are easily recognized by the mass of white woolly wax that they produce. It has a narrow host range, feeding almost entirely on rosaceous plants. Crawlers migrated up and down the trunk mainly from spring to autumn and horizontal migration through the canopy was observed from may to august. Pdf woolly aphid eriosoma lanigerum hausmann hemiptera. Chromosome numbers in different morphs of the woolly apple aphid, eriosoma lanigerum hausmann.
The woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum hausmann is one of the most damaging apple pests in south africa. Laboratory bioassays to determine susceptibility of woolly. Aphelinus mali pdf during summer the parasitoid aphelinus mali may certainly reduce the infestation of woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum, but studies on the single. The woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum hausmann homoptera. Apple fruits are one of the most widely cultivated fruits in the world, are round pome in shape and range in color from green to red. Nov 18, 2015 this page was last edited on 14 september 2017, at 19. Eriosoma lanigerum wolly aphids are protected by the cotton like substance they produce. Aphididae is a pest of the apple crop that can cause significant injuries to the plants bladley et al. Lordan j1, alegre s1, gatius f1, sarasua mj1, alins g1. As the canker develops, the host produces a raised layer of callus tissue, separating the diseased tissue from healthy tissue. Pdf during summer the parasitoid aphelinus mali may certainly reduce the infestation of woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum, but studies on the. In north america its primary host is the american elm tree ulmus americana linnaeus. Development of aphelinus mali, an endoparasitoid of woolly apple aphid, eriosoma lanigerum, at different temperatures.
Pdf laboratory bioassays to determine susceptibility of. Pdf zusammenfugen pdfdateien online kostenlos zu kombinieren. Eriosoma lanigerum an overview sciencedirect topics. In north america its primary host is the american elm tree ulmus. Discover everything scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers. The woolly apple aphid, eriosoma lanigerum is a widespread pest of fruit trees, feeding principally on apple, but also, pears, hawthorn, ash, alders, elms and oaks. Woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum hausmann ecology and its relationship with climatic variables and natural enemies in mediterranean areas. Ang eriosoma lanigerum sakop sa kahenera nga eriosoma sa kabanay nga aphididae.
This page was last edited on 14 september 2017, at 19. Dissertation phd agricuniversity of stellenbosch, 2000. A handbook of the destructive insects of victoria with notes on the methods to be adopted to check and extirpate them 1891 14595140718. Do hedgerows influence the natural biological control of. Keep in mind that the search is only based on the full taxon name. Sexuparae are alate parthenogenetic viviparae and produce the sexuals males and oviparae. They are brown or greyishpurple in colour, although this is usually masked by the wax.
Woolly aphid eriosoma lanigerum woolly apple aphid parasitized by aphelinus colony on trunk of apple on the scar tissue formed after cutting of a twig. Dissertation presented for the degree of doctor of philosophy in the department of conservation ecology and entomology, faculty of agrisciences, university of stellenbosch. Widespread and a major pest in most fruitgrowing states and provinces in eastern north america. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Pdf agegrading nymphal instars of apterous virginoparae. Ir4 ornamental horticulture program aphid efficacy.
Eriosoma lanigerum definition of eriosoma lanigerum by the. Eriosoma lanigerum, woolly apple aphid waa, is an important pest of apples in the western cape province of south africa and in other applegrowing areas of the world. Eriosoma lanigerum, commonly known as wooly apple aphid, is a serious pest of apple. Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya. Macrosiphum euphorbiae myzus persicae nasanovia ribisnigri tinocallis kahawaluokalani. The blend of glucose, fructose, sucrose, sorbitol, quebrachitol and. As a shrub cut back hard after flowering to a node and this will encourage new growth and flowering. Milder winters have promoted overwintering survival on the aerial parts of the tree. Pdf abundance and natural control of the woolly aphid eriosoma. Pdf evidence of sexual reproduction of woolly apple aphid. Status of invasive insect pests of india and their natural. It was first recorded in conoor during 1889 and in 1909 reported from kumaun in hills of utter pradesh now in uttarakhand and in 1910 from shimla. Control of the woolly apple aphid, eriosoma lanigerum hausmann.
Woolly apple aphid, eriosoma lanigerum, is a sporadic, secondary pest found in the. To obtain a better understanding of feeding, the morphology of mouthparts of the waa was examined using scanning electron microscopy sem. Reproduction of the woolly apple aphid, eriosoma lanigerum hausmann, can take place parthenogenetically or sexually when both host plants, apple malus. Eriosoma definition of eriosoma by the free dictionary.
Since this economically important apple pest has not previously been characterized at molecular level, it was necessary to evaluate methods for determining the genetic structure ofe. Membership of individuals of eriosoma lanigerum based on 50,000. Solubility in organic solvents at 20 o c mg l the thorax is black, and the outlines of legs and other appendages become visible as. Aphididae, is a worldwide pest of apple malus domestica.
The life history of sexuparae and sexual morphs of woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum hausmann is reported from simla hills. Discovery of three woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum hemiptera. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi as. The spatial distribution of the woolly apple aphid, eriosoma lanigerum hausmann, in a 41yrold apple orchard was analyzed using the negative binomialparameter k, taylors power law, and iwaos regression technique. Eriosoma lanigerum is mostly a temperate aphid species and extensively codistributed with cultivated apple. Eriosoma lanigerum, the woolly apple aphid, woolly aphid or american blight, is an aphid in the superfamily aphidoidea in the order hemiptera. Aphelinidae is the most important biological control agent against the woolly apple aphid, eriosoma lanigerum hausemann, 1802 hemiptera. Eriosoma lanigerum erislaoverview eppo global database. Apple diseases and pests, description, uses, propagation. Information and translations of eriosoma lanigerum in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Aphididae has become a more severe pest in washington apple production in the past few years.
Woolly aphid, eriosoma lanigerum, is an important pest of apples that infests both the aerial and root parts of the tree. Winter treatments against the woolly apple aphid eriosoma lanigerum. Woolly apple aphid waa, eriosoma lanigerum hausmann hemiptera. A journey through the development of new apple rootstocks. Further minor damage can be caused by the honeydew that woolly aphids secrete, which is difficult to remove. We do not use these to store personal information about you. Aphididae under south african conditions by nomakholwa faith stokwe. Biology of subterranean populations of woolly apple aphid. The woolly apple aphid waa, eriosoma lanigerum hausmann, is an important pest of apple orchards worldwide, causing direct damage through feeding by the highly specialized piercingsucking. All three indices indicated a highly aggregated distribution of the aphid in the apple orchard. Spatial distribution of homopteran pests and beneficial insects in an. A beautiful woolly aphid eriosoma lanigerum with purple wings, long antennae and a white fluffy tail. Aphididae, was monitored over three growing seasons 19951998 to assess its abundance.
Pdf winter treatments against the woolly apple aphid. General information about eriosoma lanigerum erisla eppo global database. A multilateral approach that includes both biotic and climatic data was developed to detect the main variables that affect. These predators consumed larger numbers of early than later instars of e. Gall making species include melaphis rhois and pemphigus spp. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of eriosoma. An overview of woolly apple aphid, eriosoma lanigerum, and the potential of south.544 953 118 1564 921 773 529 10 1319 817 1514 1090 231 705 1406 444 1186 1288 1075 1097 1246 1612 417 501 1334 88 1239 506 919 1143 672 517 36 709 1017 473 239 986 867 1150 606